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Without positive benefits and associated attachment to buildings and places, people rarely exercise responsibility or stewardship . . . Biophilic design is, thus, viewed as the largely missing link in prevailing approaches to sustainable design.       – Stephen R. Kellert

TIMELINE: Biophilic & Net-Positive Design History

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Net Positive

Net Positive

4) (1977) U.S. Department of Energy 

5) (1977) Solar Energy Research Institute (later renamed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

6) (1979) Mazria, Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book. Expanded Professional ed. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1979.

7) (1979) Solar Panels on the White House (Carter Administration)

11) (1989) Bob Berkebile (COTE)

12) (1990) AIA Committee on the Environment

13) (1992) Greening the White House (Clinton)

14) (1993) US Green Building Council 

17) (1998) LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) V1.0 

19) (2002) The Solar Decathlon

20) (2006) The 2030 Challenge

21) (2006) LBC 1.0: Aspirations for Net-Zero JKG 

24) (2011) Better Buildings Challenge

26) (2014) ILFI's LBC 3.0: Net-Positive added (net-zero dropped)

27) (2014) Net-Zero and Net-Positive Design: A Question of Value Raymond J. Cole

35) (2019) Zero by 2040 extension of the 2030 plan

36) (2019) LBC 4.0: Improved Equity, Directed relationship of project outcomes to effort and conditions

Integrated

Integration 

3) (1969) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

9) (1987) UN Bruntland Report: "Our Common Futures" 

15) (1996) Lyle, John Tillman. Regenerative Design for Sustainable Development. Wiley Series in Sustainable Design. New York: John Wiley, 1994.

23) (2009) Living Building Challenge 2.0 

28) (2015) B. Duarte Dias "Beyond Sustainability: Biophilic and Regenerative Design in Architecture"

29) (2015) Pamela Mang and Bill Reed "Regenerative Development and Design"

30) (2018) "Impact By Design"

31) (2019) Living Building Challenge 3.1 Biophilic Design Guidebook 

34) (2019) Xue et.al "Incorporating biophilia into green building rating tools for promoting health and wellbeing"

Biophilia

Biophilic Related

1) (1964) Fromm, Erich. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. [1st Ed.]. ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973.

2) (1969) Wells, Malcolm. Gentle Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

8) (1984) Edward O. Biophilia: the Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994.

10) (1988) Mollison, Bill. Permaculture: a Designers' manual. Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar: Tagari, 1997.

16) (1997) Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: Harper Perennial, 2002.

18) Howard Frumkin, Beyond Toxicity: Human health and the natural environment

22) (2008) Kellert, Stephen R., Judith Heerwagen, and Martin Mador. Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2008.

25) (2014) Terrapin's 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design

32) (2019) Alexander Coburn et al., Psychological responses to natural patterns in architecture

33) (2019) Julia Africa et. al, Biophilic Design and Climate Change: Performance parameters for health